Diabetes A Chronic Condition
Diabetes is a chronic condition that damages the body’s ability to maintain a healthy blood glucose level. It is one of the acute illnesses with a constantly growing fatality rate. Glucose or sugar serves as a crucial source of energy for our cells. It can be attained from two sources;
– The Liver
To control the amount of glucose stored as energy, our body uses two hormones:
Generated in the pancreas, Insulin extracts glucose from the food we consume and allows it to pass from the blood to the cells. There it is stored and utilized as a source of energy.
Our liver stores extra glucose in form of glycogen. This hormone works to maintain the level of blood glucose at a normal range. It is used as a source of energy at the time of physical activity or in between meals.
What is Type 2 Diabetes?
When cells are deprived of glucose, they become fatigued and unable to operate correctly. The body develops insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body produces a small amount of insulin but is unable to use it. Unlike type 1 diabetes, which is caused by the immune system attacking itself abnormally, type 2 diabetes is caused by unhealthy choices leading to severe physiological harm.
Type 2 diabetes affects around 6.28 percent of the global population. Although it can be diagnosed at any age, the usual patients fall under the category of the middle-agers (the late 40s or early 50s). This is how type-1 gets its name of adult-onset diabetes.
Causes of Type 2 Diabetes:
– The pancreas is unable to produce enough amount of insulin to manage the blood sugar levels.
– The cells are unable to react to the amount of insulin produced by the pancreas. This leads to a build-up of glucose in the bloodstream and excessive production of insulin leaves the beta-cells impaired.
Lack of cell communication: Sometimes the problem with beta cells creating less insulin rises from the lack of proper cell communication. The cells give wrong signals or can’t pick up the correct message.
Metabolic conditions: Conditions like high blood sugar, extra fat around the gut area, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol contribute a lot to progressive illnesses
Excessive liver glucose: The liver amplifies the already high level of sugar in the blood by the hysterical release of glucose in the bloodstream.
Damaged beta-cell: When unmanageable amounts of insulin are released, the blood sugar level gets out of control.
Risk Factors associated with type 2 diabetes:
–Acanthosis nigricans: Darkening of the skin around neck or armpits. Showing lack of insulin.
–Prediabetics: When the blood sugar level is higher than normal but not enough to qualify as diabetes, the condition is classified as prediabetes. 9 out of 10 times it leads to insulin-independent diabetes.
–Hypertension: Hypertension is a leading risk right after obesity. High blood pressure usually develops various complications like diabetes.
–Heart/ blood vessel disease: Aliments that affect the blood vessels can easily lead to severely progressing diseases like diabetes. Clogged or damaged vessels can delay cell communication.
–Obesity: Being overweight especially with uneven fat distribution drastically increases the risk of diabetes type 2. Fat around the abdominal area can prove to be very harmful.
–Pregnancy (gestational diabetes): Pregnancy increases the risk of diabetes and further complications.
–Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Polycystic ovary syndrome is defined by the irregular menstrual cycle and gaining weight. This disease causes diabetes type 2 in a number of women.
–Depression: Depression contributes to a number of diseases as it hinders a patient’s eating and sleeping patterns.
– High cholesterol: High levels of bad cholesterol often accompany diabetes.
– Stressing out too much
– Messed up sleeping patterns
– Age: Type 2 diabetes is also known as adult-onset disease. it usually occurs in people over 40 years of age. Aging increases the risk of developing diabetes type 2.
– Family: Researchers claim that genetics have a bigger role to play in type 2 diabetes than normally presumed. Even type 2 is one of the diseases that are passed down with genes. Family history matters a lot when it comes to diabetes. Regardless of the type, if any of your siblings or parents were diabetics. Your chances of developing diabetes are higher than normal.
– Ethnicity: Genetics seems to play a role in the development of diabetes. People of Asian, Hispanic, and black descent are more like to develop type 2 diabetes.
Symptoms for Type 2 Diabetes:
Polyphagia: The body’s inability to convert glucose into energy causes the cell to starve. This causes the body’s muscle and adipose tissues to break down. The patient loses weight involuntarily as a result of this phenomenon. It causes exhaustion and fatigue despite the patients’ extreme hunger.
Polyuria: The kidneys filter the glucose in the circulation, resulting in frequent urination.
Polydipsia: Dehydration and thirst rise significantly because of frequent urination. This dehydration in turn brings out a variety of symptoms, including:
– Frequent skin infection; especially on hands and feet.
– Dry mouth
– Blurred vision
– Tingling sensation or numbness due to lack of proper blood circulation.
– Upset stomach and vomiting.
– Mood fluctuation and irritability.
– Blurred vision
– Slow-healing sores
Treatments for Type 2 Diabetes:
Diabetes is untreatable but there is a variety of treatments that can assist a patient. With constant developments in medical studies, better resolutions are being achieved. These treatments for diabetes range from traditional to new life-modifying therapies.
Since obesity is one of the leading causes of diabetes type 2 diet plays a huge role in its management. The progression of diabetes can be managed by a healthy diet. Type 2 patients are often recommended to consult a dietitian or nutritionist by their physician. A dietitian can customize a diet according to a patient’s preferences. And although there is no such thing as a “diabetes diet” it is important to maintain a diet with:
– Low serving of dairy fat, vegetarian alternatives are advised.
– Food rich in fibers i.e., whole grains, veggies, and fruits
– Smaller sized portions
– Fewer calories
It is also recommended that the patient follow a proper meal schedule and regularly check their blood sugar levels. This gives the patient an upper hand when dealing with diabetes.
Physical activity is not only important to maintain a healthy weight but also a regulated blood sugar level. Type 2 Diabetics are often counseled to take physiotherapy sessions or start any suitable form of exercise to limit inactivity. Choosing an exercise should entirely depend on the patient’s leisure but it is also important to seek professional help every now and then.
Some patients require medications to help them with insulin resistance. These medications improve insulin sensitivity. However, different drugs are required for different challenges. Diabetics patients also require drugs to help maintain homeostasis. These drugs help with the complications caused by diabetes. i.e., high cholesterol, hypertension, and aspirin to prevent blood clogging vessels.
For a long time, patients with insulin-independent diabetes were not encouraged to use insulin therapy. Nonetheless, better insights into the disease in recent times, have allowed physicians to guide type 2 diabetics on the proper use of insulin therapy. When a type 2 patient is unable to reach the target blood sugar level, their health guides tailor a specific insulin therapy to cater to the patient’s needs.
The most common surgical therapy for obesity is liposuction. Obesity considerably increases the risk of various ailments, such as type 2 diabetes. Liposuction has also been found to enhance insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes.
People undergo pancreatic transplants to cope with diabetes and its complications. It can prove beneficial for type 2 diabetes. A successful pancreatic transplant insulin therapy is not needed anymore.
As a progressive disease, diabetes affects other vital organs. The risk of kidney failure rises with this condition. Many diabetics undergo kidney transplants due to overwhelming complications of the illness.
Stem Cell Treatment for Diabetes Type 2:
Cells are the fundamental elements of all creatures. All the different cells (organs and tissues) that make up our bodies are made from Stem cells. For years we used different medications and risky surgeries to combat diseases but recent studies have shown that these stem cells for diabetes type 2 can also be used against damage and degeneration.
This is the reason behind the groundbreaking results stem cell therapy displays in treating a variety of diseases. Diabetes is as complex as it is progressive. Although there are a variety of diabetes treatments available, the best is beta-cell transplantation, which helps to control blood sugar levels by creating insulin.
Beta cells are destroyed in patients with type 2 diabetes, preventing both insulin synthesis and the body’s response to it. The difficulties can be treated or perhaps eliminated by introducing new beta cells into the body.
The stem cells have certain properties that are especially beneficial for chronic disorders such as diabetes among many others.
- Stem cells can self-renew: These cells can multiply in number by replicating. An increased amount of stem cells in the body can help treat degeneration and inflammation faster.
- Stem cells are pluripotent: Stem Cells can evolve into specialized cells including nerve cells, blood cells, brain cells, heart muscles, or bone cells. In the case of diabetes, these cells can differentiate into beta-cells. No other cell in the body can change into another cell.
- Stem cells adapt: When introduced to a patient, the stem cells avoid negative responses from the immune system and adapt to it. This ability assists stem cells to influence the rest of the cell into changing their behavior. It boosts the body’s natural ability to heal itself and stop the disease from progressing.
What are the Sources of Stem Cells?
These cells can be extracted from different sources like an umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid. Cord and amniotic fluid cells proved to be especially influential in diabetic cases, according to several clinical trials.
Umbilical Cord: Umbilical Cord Cells can be used for a variety of diseases. These cells display excellent avoidance of negative responses from a person’s immune system. Umbilical cord tissue can self-replicate faster, secrete growth factors and influence white blood cells to improve different cell repair mechanisms.
Amniotic Fluid: The cells obtained from the amniotic fluid as well as the membrane are known as amniotic stem cells. Because these cells can develop into a variety of tissues such as cartilage, heart tissue, muscle, nerves, bone, and skin, they are an extremely efficient treatment for a variety of disorders.
Compared to bone marrow or adipose tissue cells, umbilical cord cells and Amniotic cells are more likely to show satisfactory results. This is because both types of stem cells are extracted from a fresh source. The chances of extracting the required amount from physiologically older bone marrow or adipose tissue are low.
How are Stem Cells a better treatment for type 2 diabetes?
–Stem cell therapy is non-invasive: The entire procedure of stem cell therapy, from extraction to administration, is ethical and non-aggressive. This is especially advantageous for diabetic patients, as an invasive treatment or surgery can increase the risk of complications.
–They delay the disease progression: The autoimmune diseases are known for getting worse with time but stem cells can put off the progression of the disease. when a type 2 diabetic is administered with stem cell therapy it influences the body to reduce the damage caused by the illness.
–Stem cells target degeneration: Unlike traditional medication stem cells target inflammation and deterioration without any side effects. The body undergoes a process of rejuvenation without the dependency on drugs.
–Stem cell therapy is cost-effective: The management and dedication other treatments require to take up a lot of patients’ energy and resources. The conventional methods of treatment are very costly in the long run. Stem cell therapy on the other hand is very cost-effective. It has longer lingering effects in long run, it is the cheapest yet the greatest investment you make for your health.
–It emphasizes overall health: Stem cell therapy seeks to boost the body’s ability to heal itself. The anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive responses of the body are boosted by stem cell therapy. Stem cells promote cell-to-cell communication, resulting in a more healthy and responsive system.
–Stem cells differentiate into Mesenchymal cells: These cells have a natural ability to detect inflammation and damaged tissues in the body. Mesenchymal stem cells treat them by influencing a better cell-to-cell contact. They support the formation of new blood vessels and tissue cell survival.
Are there any chances of stem cell rejection?
We all have different varieties and amounts of stem cells in our bodies. These numbers and types change according to the age and overall well-being of a person. People suffering from autoimmune or chronological diseases have a lesser amount of stem cells in the body.
When a patient is introduced with undifferentiated, youthful, and immune-privileged cells they do not risk rejection. Mesenchymal cells derived from cord tissue or blood have proved substantial in numerous clinical trials.
Stem cell therapy requires no host-doner match. This makes it less prone to rejection and more viable for a vast majority of patients. The stem cells need a proper environment to self-renew or differentiate that is why stem cell therapy encourages healthy habits like a proper diet and exercise.
Patients with diabetes type 2 are suggested to consult a nutritionist and physiotherapist to help maintain the activity and strength that is needed to combat the effects of the disease even after the treatment, they are recommended to keep monitoring their blood sugar level every once in a while just to be on the safe side.