A fall injury can be a result of an accident. It includes a variety of injuries ranging from mild to severe. According to the World Health Organization, falls are the second-leading cause of death from accidental injury worldwide.
- Shattered or fractured bones: Different types of fractures commonly occur to bones like the hip, arms, legs, or head. This is because these areas are most exposed during an impact.
- Strains and sprains: These kinds of injuries occur in ankles and wrists due to sudden weight imbalance
- Paralysis: Certain fall injuries are intense and can cause impairment in limbs. As a result, the patient is bound to a wheelchair.
- Internal nerve or organ damage: These are some of the most complicated injuries and can be exceptionally damaging. Internal organ or nerve damage injuries can include thoracic (chest) or brain injuries. Rib fractures and lung or heart contusion are some of the severe outcomes of thoracic injuries.
- Spinal injuries: Any serious damage to Spinal Cord due to an accident or trauma is categorized as Spinal Cord Injury.
Around 20% of the falls can end up in serious injuries. According to Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, over 800,000 individuals are admitted to hospital due to fall injuries, yearly.
Risk Factors for Fall Injuries
The following are some of the risk factors that may enhance the likelihood or severity of a fall
Old Age: as the body ages, the immune system gets weaker and we become more vulnerable. To illness and damage. With old age, many mobility issues also arise.
Lack of Vitamin D: Bone health is ensured by vitamin D. Yet the lack of it can cause a variety of bone illnesses, such as osteomalacia, osteoarthritis, and muscle weakness. Fractures and falls are more likely as a result of these difficulties. Vitamin D insufficiency can be treated with proper sun exposure and supplements.
Medications: Medications that tend to slow the central nervous system, impaired alertness, and induce slower reactions and movements can increase the risk of fall injuries. These might include prescribed medications to relieve pain, treat overactive bladder, and anti-anxiety drugs
Unsafe conditions: For a majority of the time unsafe situations are created because of careless behavior of the people.
- Avoid road rage and don’t use cell phones while driving
- Drunk driving can get you imprisoned from 6 months to a year.
- Get professional help if you’re feeling stressed
- Get proper sleep
- If you’re into activities like mountain climbing or hiking make sure you get proper training first and take proper gear with you before going to the site.
- Do not visit sites that the authorities have prohibited as hazardous
Vision Impairment: Vision impairment can cause serious issues with our Proprioception (the sense of location and balance). Get a dilated eye exam to check your vision if you are exercising constant headaches, migraines, pain in the temples or eyes, and blurry vision.
Wrong Footwear: Not only can ill-fitting shoes cause foot pain, but they can also cause significant imbalance. The wrong footwear might raise your chances of falling severely injuring yourself. It can also cause sprains and strains in the ankles.
If you’re diabetic, take extra caution when selecting footwear because the improper size might do far more damage to your foot.
Preventions for Fall Injuries
There are a few practical strategies to try to avoid falling. These are some of the suggestions:
Keep it lit: One of the most common causes of fall injuries is a lack of lighting. When selecting lighting, consider if it is bright enough for the elderly and children. A well-lit environment reduces the chances of tripping and falling. In tight hallways and stairwells, install brighter lighting. You can also put might lights in restrooms and bedrooms for better guiding, according to experts.
Avoid Clutter: Keeping your space tidy can assure a safer environment, especially for the elderly and children. Make sure to remove the clutter specifically from the floor.
- Secure loose rugs
- Remove boxes
- Avoid piling clothes on the floor (even before or after the laundry)
- Remove stacks of old magazines or newspapers
- Immediately clean if any liquids are spilled ( especially in stairs or hallways)
- Be alert with Electric or phone cords
- Store everything in its proper place
- Teach your children to store their toys in a specific space, cabinet, or box after playing.
Be patient: Patience is necessary if you want to avoid accidents
- Be patient and do not make any rash decisions, especially when driving
- When walking somewhere, take your time. Rushing increases the risk of your falling
- Let the floor dry. The wet floor becomes slippery and can increase the risk of tripping and falling.
- Avoid texting or calling when driving
- Raising quickly after a long period of sitting can induce a headrush. The dizziness can make you lose your balance.
Repair or Install assistive devices: Check if certain can cause a fall injury in-home or workplace and get it fixed.
- Check for loose carpets or rugs
- If there’s a lack of hand railings (request for instant installation at the workplace)
- Get hand bars installed near bathtub or place where balance movement is hindered
- When using a ladder make sure it’s safe and supported against a wall properly
Avoid risky clothes: dress for your convenience before anything. Loose clothes like flared pants and trousers can increase the risk of tripping. Choose clothing that is better-fitting and has been correctly hemmed so that it does not bunch up or drag on the ground. It is also very comfortable to roam around the house in socks. Yet it is dangerous, because you can easily slip and fall.
Exercise: Working out can help you improve your balance, reflexes, and muscle strength. This is advantageous since you will not harm your arm muscles while attempting to support yourself if you fall.Risk Factors associated with type 2 diabetes:
–Acanthosis nigricans: Darkening of the skin around neck or armpits. Showing lack of insulin.
–Prediabetics: When the blood sugar level is higher than normal but not enough to qualify as diabetes, the condition is classified as prediabetes. 9 out of 10 times it leads to insulin-independent diabetes.
–Hypertension: Hypertension is a leading risk right after obesity. High blood pressure usually develops various complications like diabetes.
–Heart/ blood vessel disease: Aliments that affect the blood vessels can easily lead to severely progressing diseases like diabetes. Clogged or damaged vessels can delay cell communication.
–Obesity: Being overweight especially with uneven fat distribution drastically increases the risk of diabetes type 2. Fat around the abdominal area can prove to be very harmful.
–Pregnancy (gestational diabetes): Pregnancy increases the risk of diabetes and further complications.
–Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Polycystic ovary syndrome is defined by the irregular menstrual cycle and gaining weight. This disease causes diabetes type 2 in a number of women.
–Depression: Depression contributes to a number of diseases as it hinders a patient’s eating and sleeping patterns.
– High cholesterol: High levels of bad cholesterol often accompany diabetes.
– Stressing out too much
– Messed up sleeping patterns
– Age: Type 2 diabetes is also known as adult-onset disease. it usually occurs in people over 40 years of age. Aging increases the risk of developing diabetes type 2.
– Family: Researchers claim that genetics have a bigger role to play in type 2 diabetes than normally presumed. Even type 2 is one of the diseases that are passed down with genes. Family history matters a lot when it comes to diabetes. Regardless of the type, if any of your siblings or parents were diabetics. Your chances of developing diabetes are higher than normal.
– Ethnicity: Genetics seems to play a role in the development of diabetes. People of Asian, Hispanic, and black descent are more like to develop type 2 diabetes.
Causes for Fall Injuries
Existing Chronic Illness:
Individuals with chronic diseases suffer from weakness and exhaustion ordinarily. However, diseases like Parkinson’s, diabetes, and MS among others can impair a person’s voluntary movements. These disorders can extend the risk of fall injuries, especially in the elderly.
Accidents are one of the leading causes of severe injuries. These can take place in different places and circumstances. Road accidents account for about 1.3 million deaths yearly. This is why it is important to be alert while being on the road.
Other types of mishaps might occur when participating in sports. Concussions and brain injuries are common in American soccer. Hiking, rock climbing, and surfing are all dangerous activities. This is why it is normally recommended that people obtain sufficient professional training before engaging in these hobbies.
Treatment for Fall Injuries
The extent of a fall injury can range from mild to severe. Physicians choose and arrange treatment based on the type of injury. When a person who has suffered a fall injury consults a doctor, they are usually advised to have an imaging test done.
The severity and kind of damage can be determined with this imaging test. Physicians supply over-the-counter or safe prescription medications for minor or moderate injuries. These can aid in reducing pain intensity, swelling, reducing inflammation, and preventing infection.
Casts and Splints:
Fall injuries benefit from orthopedic treatment. Image testing is utilized to determine the degree of the fall injury and its precise location. For a thorough examination of incurred injuries, these tests may include X-rays and CT scans. Once the type of damage has been determined, the orthopedic will assist in the design of the appropriate assistive treatment for the patient.
Casts and splints are used to support and restore fractured or damaged bones and joints. These immobilize the limb to retain the bone in place. Splints are occasionally used to reduce swelling shortly after an accident. These devices, on the other hand, can be employed following orthopedic surgery.
The ordinary routines of life are difficult for people who have suffered from falls. In severe circumstances, this can have a significant negative impact on their self-esteem and behavior. When people are confined to a wheelchair, their mental health is also jeopardized.
Physiotherapists can assist in both preventing and treating fall injuries. They can also analyze the home surroundings and look for any potential risks that could cause a fall. The patient’s functional ability, strength, balance, flexibility, and endurance can all be improved with physiotherapy treatments. Although physiotherapy is helpful, it is a time-consuming procedure. The person who is going through these sessions must be patient with their progress.
The injuries on vulnerable joints or bones can have outrageous results. Fractures on the hip, spine, and knee can call for total replacement surgery. Sometimes surgeries are needed in moderate cases as well if the injury was neglected for a longer period.
Although surgeries can aid with mending, they come with a higher risk of rejection and failure. Rehabilitation programs that include physiotherapy and assistance devices such as a walker or cane are still required.
Stem Cell Therapy for Fall Injuries
Fall injuries can sometimes escalate to a dangerously severe level. Depending on the severity of the damage the nerve fibers and cells can die. The damage generally results in sensory and functional impairment. Consequently, the risks of limb impairment, paralysis, nerve damage, and brain damage are increased.
These risks can be eliminated with the help of modern developments in the medical industry. Physicians and researchers have been working on Stem cell technology for the past two decades. Shifa Rejuvenation is offering Stem Cell Therapy in Pakistan.
Years of research have shown that stem cell therapy can effectively boost the body’s natural healing mechanism. Fall injuries, for example, can cause significant damage. The stem cell can remedy these damages due to its unique characteristics:
- Self-renewal: Stem cells have the capability of multiplying in number. This causes complete termination of further damage and symptom progression.
- Totipotency: Stem cells can differentiate into many types of cells including bone, ligaments, cartilage, nerves, and tissues. This can notably escalate the process of recovery in the patient.
- Immune System Adaptability: Stem cells can better cell-to-cell communication by resisting the negative immuno-response. This helps improve the longevity of neurons present as well as sensory and motor response.
- They provide tissue manufacturing and nutritional support for cells in addition to immunomodulation. A large number of white blood cells, cell bonding factors, and growth factors are produced, all of which aid in the repair of the wounded area and promote tissue regeneration. Anti-inflammatory substances are also secreted in the injured area.
These are taken from several sources. However, stem cells retrieved from the umbilical cord and amniotic fluid, which are unclaimed and physiologically younger, may be more useful than adipose tissue or bone marrow stem cells.
-Unlike other treatments stem cell therapy is non-aggressive. Stem cells can be administered simply by the intrathecal or IV method.
-If administered within a week’s duration of injury, umbilical cord stem cells show improvement within a month.
-When it comes to treating fall injuries, stem cells are incredibly cost-effective. Traditional therapies like ventilators might be costly in the long run.
To aid in the rehabilitation process, stem cell therapy encourages healthy habits such as exercise and a balanced diet. Doctors that recommend stem cell therapy also suggest that the patient undergo physiotherapy to regain control of their mobility and limbs.